-> New technology of with STOL / VTOL airplanes development
3 July, 2003
technology of with short / vertical take-off and landing (STOL /
VTOL) airplanes development
on lift creation basis by "vortical" method)
successful realization of this technology will permit to decrease
the air transportation cost and also the requirements to the airports
and places of their location. The military aviation may receive
the new possibility during military operations.
airplanes take-off and landing characteristics improvement is one
of the required ways of the aviation development as these characteristics
have the decisive influence on the following:
of more dangerous flight phases (take-off and landing);
distance from consumer;
airplane at landing and therefore on its weight perfection;
and comfort of people living near airports;
to pilots preparation level;
for flights safety ensuring.
the works are carrying out actively on the take-off and landing
characteristics improvement - airplanes development with short take-off
and landing (STOL) and like ideal airplanes with vertical take-off
and landing (VTOL) - by many producers of the aviation products
of the domestic and foreign scientific and research institutes and
the more effective way from the known ones of ensuring the short
take-off and landing (i.e. connected with development of the additional
lift) and all ways of ensuring the vertical take-off and landing
due to the low weight efficiency, arrangement difficulties, high
level of noise produced on surroundings, high level of runway erosion
etc. did not find the wide use and are used only for the military
airplanes (like Harrier, Osprey, Yakovlev-38 and 141 etc.).
principle new "vortex" method of lift development is suggested
to use in this project for STOL / VTOL airplanes development. Its
realization is confirmed the mathematical simulation and real experiments
in Zhukovsky Central Aerodynamic Institute by Zhukovsky -
(Russian Federation, Zhukovsky).
/ VTOL airplanes demonstration stand article development is proposed
as a final product for demonstration of technology development possibility.
technology development perspective is connected with its use for
airplanes of the different meaning which possess the different velocities
of the cruise flight, take-off mass and dimensions. And its also
permits to make the quantitative jump in the airplanes take-off
and landing characteristics improvement inside the existing technologies,
arrangement and design decisions without development of the new
materials and fuels.
detailed essence of the "vortical" method for the lift
creation is given in the RF patents No. 2116224 (priority on 08.04.1994,
registration on 27.07.1998) and No. 2144886 (priority on 02.03.1998,
registration on 27.01.2000) and also in statement No. РСТ/RU 99/00052.
to the demonstration test article of the airplane with the short
runway/vertical take-off and landing (see Fig.1) it is foreseen
to re-equip the airplane of the traditional structure with wing
and horizontal tail developed for the "vortical" method
for the lift creation and also with the special power plant for
the compressed air generation and its supply through pipelines to
wing and horizontal tail.
1 - wing
developed for "vortical" method of lift creation; 2 -
special power plant on basis of additional gas-turbine plant; 3
- air supply pipeline; 4- horizontal tail developed for "vortical"
method of lift creation.
(see Fig. 1…4) is equipped with the turn module located along wing
span in the wing front part and flap aileron (flaperon) with the
upper flap located along wing span in the wing rear part. Then turn
module consists of the nose flap, tank for the air supply and channel
connected the tank with upper surface of wing.
wing configuration for the flight mode with the small velocities
is given in Fig. 2. The air, taken from the special power plant
compressor, is sent into the tank. The ejected jet "a",
coming out from the channel along the nose flap of the turn module
installed under the angle to the upper surface of wing, is mixed
intensively with the air, located in space between the nose flap
and upper surface of wing, and forms the ejected jet "b"
and flat jet "c". At ejection of jet "b" the
full pressure of the air is decreased in space between jet "c"
and upper surface of wing that brings to inclination of jet "c"
in direction of the upper surface of wing and decreasing of the
full pressure dropping in it. In this case, one part of jet "c",
like jet "d", is returned along the upper surface of wing
into the ejected area of ejected jet "a" and other part,
like jet "e", is gone with the flow flowed over the wing.
During movement of jet "d" along the upper surface of
wing into the ejected area of ejected jet "a" its velocity
is increased and its static pressure is decreased. The flaperon
serves like flap increasing the wing profile curvature. The increase
of lift "Y" is stipulated by increasing the curvature
and relative thickness of the new formed "liquid" profile
of wing and decreasing the static pressure in jet "d".
1- upper flap.
wing configuration in mode of the vertical take-off and landing
is given in Fig. 3. Here for ensuring of the maximum angles of ejection
of jet "c" the area of the return flow is separated from
atmosphere by the upper flap of flaperon and lift "Y"
is formed due to difference of the static pressure in jet "d",
acted on the upper surface of wing, and full atmospheric pressure,
acted on the lower surface of wing.
wing configuration (Fig. 4) in mode of the cruise flight - turn
module is located in packed position and flaperon is serves like
aileron controlling the flow, flowed over the wing. The structure
of the horizontal tail and its functioning are analogous ones like
for the wing.
investigations, carried out up to day, permit to make a conclusion
about the following advantages of the suggested technology of the
lift creation in comparison with the known ones in use for the airplanes
take-off and landing characteristics improvement:
of lift creation process (practically all kinetic energy of ejected
jet "a" is spent for lift realization);
efficiency (high movable elements are absent and part of units
functions in cruise flight, in flight with small velocities and
in vertical take-off and landing mode are overlapped);
use of elements
tested in other methods of take-off and landing characteristics
improvement (air bleed-off from turbo-jet engines compressors
and jets blowing-out near wing surface);
(technology using is possible for airplanes of different meanings
which possess the different velocities in cruise flight, take-off
mass and overall dimensions);
and modernization possibility;
of noise and erosion (velocities and impulses of jets "c"
and "e", interacted with atmosphere and airport pavement,
suggested technology can be used for airplanes of the different
meaning (i.e. general, civil, main, military etc.) for the flight
characteristics improvement for the small velocities (take-off,
landing and maneuvering).
Preferably for airplanes which use the turbo-jet engines of the
different degrees of two-contours like the cruise engine units.
suggested technology realization may influence essentially on the
aviation development and will permit the following:
of old pilots and military strategists dreams - combing the helicopter
and airplane advantages, in this case it is possible to give the
necessary portion of the first and second ones depending on requirements;
the wide spectrum of aviation products which are able to base
on aircraft carriers, mountains, ground airports and building
the unquestionable advantages during attacks of ground and airborne
targets and parry of their attacks;
of new more effective tactics of military operations with aviation
phase works realization for the project fulfillment is suggested
for decreasing the risks, people and hardware expenses.
laboratory test purpose is development of the initial data optimal
parameters selection methods for designing and engineering the full
scale airplane (requirements for power plant, flight control units
test article development
demonstration test article development purpose is to demonstrate
the possibilities of the "vortical" method for the lift
creation and forming the initial data confirmed during the full-scale
tests of the real article for the further integration.
The demonstration test article (see Fig. 1) development is planned
on basis of the traditional airplane with take-off mass of 1500...2500
kg selected like a base one by its modification and re-equipping.
For the maximum process stock maintaining of the basis airplane
the structure, aerodynamic, dynamic, strength and other characteristics
are maintained invariable ones or are realized close to the initial
ones during the wing and horizontal tail development. The additional
equipment installation is carried out due to decreasing of the standard
fuel and payload mass and some possible increasing of the take-off
mass with the further limitation of the cruise velocity, operation
overload and other flight technical characteristics.
It is proposed to use one of the existed additional gas-turbine
plants like a special power plant which adaptation for this task
is connected, in general, with dismounting of the equipment part
and adjustment of the operation modes.
stand test purpose is confirmation of the design take-off and landing
characteristics during the full-scale tests and demonstration of
the technology possibilities.
It is proposed to carry out the stand tests in two phases (on the
ground and in flight).
During the ground tests the works on realization of the vertical
take-off and landing mode and preparation for the flight tests are
carried out including the following:
tests of systems, taken part in lift creation by "vortical"
method (wing, horizontal tail, additional control system, special
tests of systems interaction modes;
vertical take-off and landing modes at special power plant operation
with determination of aerodynamic, dynamic, ballistic characteristics
of airplane, fuel flow rate etc.
ground tests carrying out are possible at the manufacturer's plant
as it does not require the using and development of the expensive
special equipment and rooms.
During the flight tests the works on realization of the short take-off
and landing modes, transient modes and cruise flight.